Association Between Anthropometric Status, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity with Bone Health Status among Premenopausal Chinese Women in the Kiang Valley, Malaysia
Mal J Nutr 19(3): 293 – 302, 2013
Association Between Anthropometric Status, Dietary Intake and Physical Activity with Bone Health Status among Premenopausal Chinese Women in the Klang Valley, Malaysia
Yee YSS, Zaitun Y, Chan YM & Norhaizan ME
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
Introduction: There is a lack of information on bone health status of premenopausal women in Malaysia. This study investigated the bone health status of premenopausal women and its associations with anthropometric, dietary and physical activity. Methods: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and total body. Serum osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), beta-crosslaps were also determined. Results: A total of 73 Chinese premenopausal women were recruited in the study with a mean age of 39.3 � 5.0 years. Average BMI, body fat percentage and lean body mass were 22.2 � 3.4 kg/m2, 33.9 � 4.6% and 34.5 � 4.4 kg, respectively. Mean BMD at the spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total body were 1.025 � 0.118 g/cm2, 0.876 � 0.109 g/cm2, 0.739 � 0.110 g/cm2, and 1.061 � 0.755 g/cm2, respectively. Their serum beta-crosslaps and PTH were within normal range, but serum osteocalcin (8.5 � 4.2 ng/ml) was low. On average, calorie intake (1506 � 427 kcal/day) was below the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) while their calcium intake achieved only 67% of RNI. Their mean metabolic equivalent score (MET) was 771.4 � 926.1 mm/week. Body weight and related indices (BMI, lean mass, fat mass) were significantly positively correlated with BMD at all skeletal sites. Conclusion: The study revealed that Chinese premenopausal women in the Klang Valley have low calcium intake and low level of physical activity.
Keywords: Bone mineral density, premenopausal women