• Growth, Cognitive Development and Psychosocial Stimulation of Preschool Children in Poor Farmer and Non-Farmer Households

    Mal J Nutr 19(3): 325 – 337, 2013

    Growth, Cognitive Development and Psychosocial Stimulation of Preschool Children in Poor Farmer and Non-Farmer Households 
    Khorasan A1, Anwar Fl, Hernawati N2, Suhanda NS3, Warsito 01 & Herawati T2

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction: This study aimed to analyse factors that influence cognitive development of preschool children. Methods: Four hundred and two children were recruited by purposive methods from poor farmer and non-farmer households. Nutritional status data were obtained through anthropometric measurements and processed by using the WHO Anthro 2005 software. Child cognitive development was measured using the instrument developed by the Department of National Education of Indonesia. Meanwhile, psychosocial stimulation was measured by using the instrument of Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory. Results: The nutritional status data show that in farmer households, 28.6% children were underweight, 12.1% wasted, and 30.7% stunted, while in non-farmer households 31.3% children were underweight, 15.3% wasted, and 35.5% stunted. However, no statistical differences were found (p>0.05). The percentage of children who reached cognitive development in the high category in the farmer household was 8% and in the non-farmer group, it was 17.4%. Nevertheless, more than half of the children in farmer and non-farmer households had cognitive development scores in the low category (<60%). Most children in farmer and non-farmer households had psychosocial stimulation in the moderate category (30-45). The correlation test showed that length of mother's education (p<0.01), psychosocial stimulation (p<0.01), participation in early childhood education (p<0.01), nutritional status based on the index of weight for age (p<0.01) and height for age (p<0.01) respectively, had a positive and significant relationship with cognitive development of children. This means that the better the education of mothers, as well as psychosocial stimulation, participation in early childhood education and nutritional status will improve cognitive development of children. Conclusion: The nutritional status of children in farmer and non-farmer households was not different. The nutritional status and psychosocial stimulation as well as the participation of children in early childhood had an important role in the cognitive development of children. 

    Keywords: Children's nutritional status, cognitive development, psychosocial stimulation

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